Sudan: Conflict Timeline

1899: Sudan comes under British/Egyptian rule. 1916: Sultanate of Darfur incorporated into Sudan. 1955:First civil war begins between the South and North. 1956: Sudan achieves independence. 1958: General Abbud leads the first military coup against the civilian government. 1962: Civil war breaks out in the predominately Christian region of the South. 1964: The ‘October Revolution’ overthrows Abbud and a National Government is elected. 1969: Gaafar Mohamed El-Nimeiri leads the "May Revolution" military coup and becomes President. 1969: Military coup puts Nimeiri in power. 1971: Nimeiri sees that the Communist Leader is executed after a failed coup attempt. 1972: Peace agreement is signed in Addis Ababa and the South achieves partial self-governance. This led to 10 years of peace in the South. 1978: Oil reserves are discovered in Bentiu in South Sudan. 1983: Nimeiri introduces nationwide Islamic Sharia law. 1983: Tensions in the South led to the formation of the Sudanese People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) under leader John Garang. The southern based group takes up arms against government forces. 1985: After widespread popular unrest Nimeiri is deposed from Presidency by a group of officers. A Transitional Military Council is set up to rule the country. 1986: Post-Nimeiri elections see Sadiq al-Mahdi become Prime Minister. 1989: National Salvation Revolution (NSR) takes over in a military coup. 1993: After another military coup the Revolution Command Council is dissolved and Omar al-Bashir is appointed president. 1998: The US launches a missile attack on a pharmaceutical plant in Khartoum. It alleges that it was making materials for chemical weapons and has links to Al-Qaeda – the government dismisses the claims as false. 1998: A new constitution is endorsed in a referendum. 1999: Following a power struggle with Hassan al-Turabi, the Parliamentary Speaker, President Bashir dissolves the National Assembly and declares a state of emergency. The same year Sudan begins to export oil. 2000: Omar al-Bashir is re-elected President after all other political parties boycott elections. 2001: The Popular National Congress (PNC) signs a memorandum of understanding with the southern rebel SPLM's armed faction, the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA). Hassan Al-Turabi, leader of the PNC is arrested the following day.

2001: Citing its record on terrorism and human rights violations, the US extends unilateral sanctions against Sudan for another year. 2002: The government and the SPLA sign a landmark peace deal. A renewable 6 month ceasefire agreement is made. This brings to an end 19 years of civil war. 2003: Two rebel groups in the Western region of Darfur rise up against what they believe to be government neglect of the arid region. The groups arm Arab militia against civilians. 2004: The Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebels agree ceasefire in the South. 2004: In Darfur, as the army moves against the insurgency, hundreds of thousands of refugees flee into Chad. 2004 (Mar): UN official says pro-government Arab militias known as "Janjaweed" are carrying out systematic killings of villagers in Darfur. 2004 (May): Further progress is made in North - South relations when the government and southern rebels agree on power-sharing protocols. 2004 (Sept): The US describes Darfur killings as ‘genocide’. The UN says Sudan has failed to disarm pro-government militias but do not accept the term ‘genocide.’ The Sudanese government agrees to the African Union (AU) sending in a protection force. 2005 (Jan): Government and southern rebels sign a comprehensive permanent peace deal. 2005: The UN Security Council says those who commit atrocities in Darfur can be brought before the International Criminal Court (ICC). Three months later Khartoum seeks to head off international action by setting up its own tribunal. Ezocampguard 2005: Following the September introduction of a power-sharing government in Khartoum, in October, an autonomous government is formed in the South. The new administration is dominated by former rebels. 2006 (Aug): The UN Security Council vote to send a 26,000 strong peacekeeping force to Darfur but Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir - citing a violation of sovereignty - refuses to allow the deployment of the UN force. Two months later, Jan Pronk, the UN's top official in Sudan, is expelled from the country. 2007 (May): The ICC issues its first arrest warrants for a Sudanese Minister and a Janjaweed militia leader. Khartoum rejects the statement and says the court has no jurisdiction. 2007 (July): Sudan accepts the deployment of a 26,000 strong AU -UN force to Darfur –UNAMID. 2008: UNAMID officially takes over from the AU peacekeeping force in Darfur. 2008: Troops are deployed in Chad and the Central African Republic (CAR) to assist with the refugee flow from Darfur. 2008 (April): The UN predict that 300,000 people have been killed in the five year Darfur conflict. 2008 (May): Sudanese government bombs hit schools and market places in Darfur, killing 13 civilians. UNHCR withdraws its staff from sites on the Chad/Sudan border citing insecurity. 2008 (June): Northern and Southern forces begin intense fighting over the disputed oil-rich town of Abyei. 2008 (July): The ICC calls for the arrest of President Bashir for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur. It is the first appeal the ICC has ever made for the arrest of a sitting head of state. Sudan rejects the charges. 2009 (Mar): The ICC in The Hague issues an arrest warrant for President Omar al-Bashir. 2009 (May): 250 people in central Sudan are killed during clashes between nomadic groups fighting over grazing land. 2009 (July): North and South Sudan accept a ruling by The Hague which gives control of the Abyei region and its oilfields to the North. 2010 (Feb): An ICC appeals court rules that a previous judgement that charges of genocide could not be considered against al-Bashir, was wrong. The case has been passed back for a decision on the case for charging al-Bashir with genocide. 2010 (Apr): National elections return Al-Bashir as President of Sudan, and Salva Kiir as President of South Sudan. Opposition parties allege vote rigging. 2010 (Dec): An upsurge in fighting in Darfur as the ceasefire between the SLA and the government breaks down. Followed by the end of the peace talks in Doha. 2011 (Jan): With over 99% in favour, South Sudan votes overwhelmingly in favour of independence in a vote widely regarded as free, fair and credible. 2011 (5 June): clashes begin in Southern Kordofan 2011 (July): Formation of the South Sudan Liberation Army (SSLA) 2011 (9 July): South Sudan becomes independent. 2011 (13 July): Sudan’s parliament passes a law cancelling the Sudanese nationality of Southerners 2011 (14 July): South Sudan is admitted by the General Assembly as the 193rd member of the UN 2011 (18 July): South Sudan launched its own currency 2011 (20 July): Rebel leader Gatluak Gai signs a peace deal with the SPLA, and is shot dead three days later in Unity State 2011 (27 July): South Sudan becomes the 54th member of the African Union 2011 (August ongoing): cattle raids and violence across South Sudan with a number of military and civilian deaths 2011 (1 August): Salva Kiir Mayardit appointed the South Sudan Council of State, consisting of fifty representatives 2011 (5 August): Sudan blocked a shipment of oil from South Sudan after Juba reportedly refused to pay customs fees – the South accused Khartoum of sabotaging its economy 2011 (27 August): New Cabinet of South Sudan is announced, considered representative of ethnic groups and across states; it is made up of 29 ministers and 27 deputies 2011 (3 September): State of emergency declared in Blue Nile state, elected SPLM-N Governor Malik Agar sacked. Some 100,000 said to have fled unrest. 2011 (9 October): South Sudan and Sudan agree to set up several committees tasked with resolving their outstanding disputes 2011 (11 November): Sudan accused of bombing refugee camp in Yida, Unity State, South Sudan

Photo credit: Soldier guards the Ezo refugee camp in South Sudan. Thanks to BBC World Service. Uploaded under a Creative Commons License.