Nepal: Conflict profile

Three Maoist rebels waiting for order on top of a hill in the Rolpa district, Nepal. Three Maoist rebels waiting for order on top of a hill in the Rolpa district, Nepal. ( © Jonathan Alpeyrie via Wikimedia Commons)

Nepal is one of the world’s poorest counties, and the legacy of its internal conflict continues to be felt, a decade-long civil war that was launched by the Communist Party of Nepal in 1996.

The conflict claimed the lives of 17,000 people, displaced an estimated 100,000 more, and brought about the end of a 240-year old monarchy. The declaration of a National State of Emergency in both 2001 and 2005 caused further political instability and restricted a wide range of civil liberties, a move that was met with criticism abroad.

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2006 was designed to create a permanent peace. Although progress has been made, challenges remain and the country continues to experience political instability. Tensions between the Maoists and other political groups were particularly strained in 2010, sparking widespread protests, strikes and violent clashes.

A 7.8 magnitude earthquake and a series of aftershocks in 2015 resulted in the loss of thousands of lives and caused severe infrastructure damage across the nation. Nepal's disaster relief needs have impeded the process of recovery from conflict.

Last updated: August 2009